The Student Honors Papers collection represent exemplary work in International Studies at Illinois Wesleyan University. The Ames Library is proud to archive these and other honors projects in Digital Commons @ IWU, the university's online archive of student, faculty and staff scholarship and creative activity.

Maoism in South Asia: A Comparative Perspective On Ideology, Practice, and Prospects for the 21st Century
by Ryan D. Nielsen

The Maoists in both India and Nepal have drawn on Maoist theory to analyze their countries as semi-feudal and semi-colonial, setting the stage for Maoist revolutionary movements. The two movements differ in their historical interpretations of communist revolutions and Marxism—the Nepalese Maoists have come to reject Marxist notions of the state, while the Indian Maoists have uncritically upheld the experience of socialist states and communist revolutions. These differences in historical interpretation are intimately linked with the divergent theoretical and practical orientations of the Maoists in both countries, orientations that have emerged due to distinct material conditions that both revolutionary movements have faced. These Maoist movements show that while a movement can utilize Mao’s philosophy and strategy broadly, each country has particular conditions that a revolutionary movement must confront. The communist revolution in China cannot be repeated identically in any country in the world today, and new theoretical and practical orientations must emerge to update and make Maoism effective in the 21st century.

The Forgotten Ones: Child Sex Trafficking in Post-Communist Romania
by Sarah K. Moir

Child sex trafficking is a global issue, and much can be learned about the causes by analyzing the histories of certain countries. The historical analysis of this paper focuses on Romania: the devaluation of children throughout Romanian history led to a situation where Romanian children were easily victimized. I begin by examining the place of children within the haphazard and inadequate educational system in Romania since the mid-19th century and into the 20th century. This neglect continued under communism, when education was more inclusive but it was dominated by ideological indoctrination rather than actual academics. Combined with economic factors, emigration patterns, corruption, and organized crime; these ideological issues increased the level of neglect for Romania’s young. Finally, I examine the increase in the supply of child sex workers originating from Romania with the fall of communism in 1989. Trafficking was bound to occur in Romania due to these factors, which created an at-risk environment for its young citizens.

The Importance of Education Systems in Post-Conflict Settings: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH)
by Emily Coles

This paper considers how education systems in post-conflict settings impact reconstruction processes using the case of Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) as an example. Three separate literatures are reviewed: post-conflict settings/reconstruction, reconciliation, and education systems. The paper analyzes the transitions, security, political, social and economic, which characterize post-conflict settings and reconstruction and argues that they must occur consequentially. Additionally, post-conflict reconstruction must always include both short and long-term goals in the peace agreement and provide for development of local capacity. In BiH these transitions were incomplete. The placement of a constitution in the peace agreement, without provisions for its revision, has also led to political gridlock. Reconciliation is then discussed as a central component of reconstruction. In the case of BiH, even though it has been 15 years since the conflict, reconciliation has not occurred and the society remains polarized according to the three ethnicities. The role of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in promoting reconciliation is criticized and indicators of the continued presence of ethnic tensions are reviewed. Lastly, the role of education systems in post-conflict reconstruction is discussed. Because education can play a critical role in reconciliation, and in reconstruction, education should be mandated in any peace agreement. Since education was not considered in the Dayton Peace Accords, the education system in BiH remains divided and this is impeding reconciliation. It is argued that, if education is not emphasized as a key component in peace agreements, then divided education systems will continue to prevent successful reconciliation, which in turn hinders the long-term success of reconstruction efforts.

Explaining Ethnic Peace: The Importance of Institutions
by Rebecca Tong, '09

This paper examines the cause of ethnic peace, and subsequently, the cause of ethnic violence. Varying theories explain ethnic violence: primordialism, instrumentalism, and constructivism. The question central to this study is how master narratives, scarce resources, and democratic institutions have influenced the occurrence of ethnic violence. Small n comparison is used to analyze two pairs of sub-Saharan African nations in order to control for other explanatory variables: (1) Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and (2) Kenya and Tanzania. In each pair, one nation is relatively peaceful and the other relatively violent. Drawing from ethnographic research papers, and news sources this paper finds that while cultural and economic factors play heavily into ethnic violence, it is the carrying capacity of political institutions that enable ethnic peace. Better political institutions foster civic trust amongst citizens, and ensure peaceful means for the demonstration of political and economic frustrations.

Surrogate Freedom: Transmitting Democracy to the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc
by Lauren Nelson, '09

While currently relocating to a building away from the center of Prague, since 1995, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) has been headquartered in the former Czechoslovakian parliament building. The former President of Czechoslovakia, Vaclav Havel, invited the radios to move from Munich to Prague and occupy the parliament building for a symbolic dollar a year rent. This gesture of historical irony is especially appropriate in considering the history of international radio broadcasting: a building representative of Communism was converted into the headquarters for radio stations extolling the benefits of democratic media. This symbolic move signifies one of the paradoxes of the twentieth century: the United States, the major financial contributor to RFE/RL, profited from the broadcasting and ideological infrastructure developed by the Soviet Union, and the medium intended to unify and spread Communist goals was ultimately used against the system and contributed to the downfall of the regime. To examine this phenomenon, this paper will consider the beginnings of two forms of broadcasting: early Soviet and post-WWII programming by Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty.

When Is a Terrorist Not a Terrorist?: American and Chinese Media Portrayals of the Chinese Uighur Minority Pre and Post 9/11
by Anna File, '09

Over the past sixty years the Uighur population in China has faced a variety of complex issues, both domestically and internationally. In large part due to their geopolitical positioning as inhabitants of Xinjiang Province as well owing to several issues with their Muslim faith, Uighurs have constantly been at odds with the Communist traditions imposed upon them by the central Chinese government. Not only do problems with their religion affect them nationally, but more recently with the trend towards suspicion of Muslim groups by Westerners, the Uighurs are in a seemingly helpless position. This paper hypothesizes however, that this has not always been the case, and that the politics of 9/11 in particular have changed the tone of articles towards Uighurs in a negative way, especially within American media. In terms of Chinese media coverage, it was originally suggested that Uighurs were always negatively portrayed in newspaper coverage, and that post 9/11, media attacks on Uighurs would become even more aggressive due to the increase in fear that Americans felt towards Muslim fundamentalists as opposed to Communists (a fear that may have been felt by the Chinese towards Muslim fundamentalists as well). As the findings of this paper will later reveal however, an almost opposite approach was discovered after careful observation of related Chinese news articles.

Globalization and Gangs: The Evolution of Central American
by Patrick Beary '07

The focus ofthis paper is beyond a critique of U.S. immigration law and the 4 regions' judicial systems, although their roles as they relate to gang activities in these areas will be assessed. Nor is this paper a comprehensive ethnographic account of gang life and gang structure in general. Instead the purpose of this study is to synthesize the theoretical literature of globalization and apply it to what we know about specific gangs such as MS-13 and M-18 in North and Central America.

Trade Liberalization and Environmental Justice in the Ivorian Cocoa Industry
by Anne M. Fell '07

This paper explores the relationship between neoliberal economic policy and environmental justice in the Ivorian cocoa industry by examining the precedents set forth during the French colonial era, the economic principles behind trade liberalization, and trade liberalization's effects on poverty and child labor, environmental degradation, and ethnic violence.

Insight into Illinois Wesleyan University Study Abroad
by Christopher B. Lyons '03

This paper presents the results of a research into the reasons why students do and do not study abroad during their years at Illinois Wesleyan University (IWU). After establishing the importance of the research question, the paper continues with a description ofa survey ofIWU students conducted in Spring 2003. Presentation and analysis of the results follow. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential policy changes that could lead to an increase in the number of IWU students who study abroad in the future.

French Framing of Anna Karenina: Confused Identities in Russian Aristocratic Culture
by Devin Conley '07

Anna Karenina uses Russian identities and Russian language in opposition to European culture and French language to highlight the superficiality ofthe Russian aristocracy in the nineteenth century. In the context of the novel, honesty to oneself worth is the highest expression of being; unless one lives in truth, one cannot lay claim to a genuine existence. Culture and, more importantly, cultural identity provide this appraisal and affirmation of our own self-worth, as well as a framework in which to approach life.